Alligator Reef Lighthouse

Walter A. Starck II

Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami
1Contribution No. 890 from the Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami

Editor's note: In recent years fish counts have become a popular diving activity and more formal faunal surveys have become an important tool for assessing conservation priorities.  Few divers realize that the greatest number of fishes recorded from any one locale in the Americas still remains the 517 species recorded for Alligator Reef in the Florida Keys in the 1960's. 
     As the original publication of this study was in a technical journal of limited circulation I have decided to republish it here to make it more readily accessible. 
   An OCR version of this study scanned from the original publication is included in the fishlist/doc directory of this issue along with .jpg images of the original five pages of figures.
     Issues 11 and 12 of Golden Dolphin have featured additional articles and slideshows on diving at Alligator Reef.


 The fish fauna of Alligator Reef, Florida is enumerated and the zoogeographic nature of the Florida reef fish fauna discussed. A total of 517 species are recorded, of which 389 are coral reef forms. Forty-five species are previously unknown from Florida and an additional eight are undescribed. The Alligator Reef fish fauna is now the richest known of any single location in the new world. Only seven of the reef species are not recorded from elsewhere in the West Indian region outside Florida and this number is expected to be further reduced with additional collecting in other areas. The Florida reef fish fauna is believed to be composed-of post-glacial immigrants from the West Indies and Yucatan.


 Coral reefs, though harboring what is probably the richest and certainly one of the oldest and most stable animal communities on earth, have been relatively little studied. The tremendous potential for biological research offered by coral reefs has been offset by their remoteness from most centers of higher learning and by their being underwater. In recent years development of marine research institutions in tropical regions, advances in various fields of technology, and increased availability of funds for marine biological research have resulted in a considerable increase in work on coral reefs.

The West Indian coral reef fauna in general, and that of Florida reefs in particular, are better studied than reef faunas elsewhere in the world and of reef animals fishes are among the best known. In the present list the presence of 45 species of reef fishes previously unrecorded from Florida or other U.S. waters and at least eight undescribed species is indicative of the inadequate state of our knowledge of even the best known reef organisms in the most thoroughly studied region. An additional indication of the status of our information is the fact that 36 species in the list have been described since 1955.

Even among described species many systematic problems remain and beyond the systematic level very little information is in print regarding the biology of most reef fishes. To an important extent in coral reef studies we are still dealing with an unknown fauna. This list constitutes what is apparently the first reasonably definitive enumeration of a coral reef fish fauna.

The present paper is the second of a series dealing with the structure of the fish fauna of Alligator Reef (the first is Starck and Davis, 1967). Future publications on color patterns, size and form, habitats and species associations, general behavior, and other aspects of reef fish biology are in preparation.


 Alligator Reef is a shallow knoll on the Florida reef chain ,located about 3.5 nautical miles offshore of the town of Islamorada Florida, in the Florida Keys. The area encompassed by the present checklist (U.S.C. & G. 1250) extends from the ocean shores of Upper and Lower Matecumbe Keys to the 100 fathom curve about nine nautical miles beyond the reef. Collections as far as the next reefs to the northeast and southwest of Alligator Reef have been included. These adjacent reefs are Crocker Reef, six nautical miles northeast and Tennessee Reef, 10 miles southeast of Alligator Reef.

Shore habitats in the study area consist mainly of beaches of mixed coral and shell rubble, calcareous sand, and finer material. The beach slope is gentle so that a distance of about one nautical mile from shore is reached before a depth of six meters is encountered. A few shore areas consist of eroded coral rock and in one location, Indian Key, the rocky shore is undercut with a water depth of one meter at shore.

The lagoon or Hawk Channel extends for a distance of about 2.5 nautical miles from shore and the bottom consists of large beds of Thalassia alternating with areas of flat rocky bottom dominated by alcyonarians, sponges, and Sargassum. Large groups of patch reefs occur in several locations in the lagoon and isolated coral heads in many areas.

The sandy back-reef begins about one mile inside the outer-reef tract. The substrate consists largely of sandy bottom mixed with increasing amounts of rubble toward the reef and with finer sediments nearer the lagoon. Many isolated patches of Thalassia dot the back-reef and a number of rocky patches covered with alcyonarians and sponges are also found.

The reef-top consists largely of eroded coral rock and rubble interspersed with small patches of sand. An eroded rocky ledge up to 2.5 meters high extends for several hundred meters along the reef-top at Alligator Reef and is an important concentration point for many species of fishes. Numerous corals and alcyonarians occur in the rocky areas but coral growth on the reef-top at Alligator Reef is not as luxuriant as at certain other reefs on either side of it along the Florida reef tract. Coral development, however, has little direct effect on the fish fauna as coral is important chiefly as shelter. Because of the shelter afforded by the rocky ledge and the presence of extensive and diverse back-reef forage areas Alligator Reef actually has a greater concentration of reef fishes than many other locations with more luxuriant coral growth. Depths on the reef-top at Alligator Reef vary from 1.5 to six meters with four to five meters over the ledge.

          Seaward of the reef-top the bottom slopes over a distance of 150 to 200 meters to a depth of 22 to 24 meters and then drops more or less abruptly to a depth of 29 meters (16 fathoms). The deep-reef makes up the outer edge of this zone. It consists of heavily eroded coral rock overgrown by profuse growths of live corals, alcyonarians, and sponges. The outer face is steep and falls off onto silty sand and sandy rubble bottom at a depth of 28 to 29 meters. The deep-reef is separated from the reef-top in most areas by a band of sand 100 meters or more wide in depths of 10 to 20 meters.

Beyond the deep-reef the bottom shelves gently so that it is necessary to go about one mile beyond the outer edge of the deep-reef before a depth of 45 meters is reached and nine miles before a depth of 180 meters (100 fathoms) is reached. The bottom over most of this area consists of various mixtures of calcareous slit, sand, and rubble.

Small rocky outcrops at a depth of 45 meters occur in one location and are a focal point for concentrations of a number of deep water reef species. Other areas of low relief are found in deeper water and an extensive zone of very rugged relief occupies the outer edge of the study area in depths of 145 to 180 meters.

For the purposes of the present paper the reef community is defined as that occupying the reef-top itself and all of the reef associated habitats from the shoreward edge of the lagoon to a depth of 45 meters, about one mile beyond the outer edge of the deep-reef.


 The only reference to biological work at Alligator Reef prior to the present program is a paper by Breder (1927). His report on the fishes collected by the first oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" in 1925 Includes about 15 species of reef fishes collected at Alligator Reef.

The present work at Alligator Reef was begun by the author in 1958 and has continued for varying periods during each year of the subsequent nine years. Use of rotenone-based fish toxicants and SCUBA equipment has been the single most productive collecting technique. Well over 200 such collections have been made in all major habitats from shore to 45 meters. Hundreds of additional collections have also been made by more selective methods. Spears, traps, handnets, castnets, trawls, angling, and other techniques have been used extensively. In depths greater than 45 meters bottom collections have been made by trawl and hook and line only, and even these techniques have not been used exhaustively though perhaps 50 days of hook and line fishing at these depths have been carried out.

In addition to collecting, several hundred days have been spent in observing with skin and SCUBA diving equipment. Over 100 night diving trips have also been made for observations and limited collecting.


 Virtually all fishes collected at Alligator Reef have been deposited in the ichthyological museum of the Institute of Marine Science of the University of Miami. This material has been used by a number of investigators and a total of 34 publications and three studies in press now deal with fishes from Alligator Reef.

Anderson, Gehringer, and Berry (1966), Böhlke (1967a, 1967b), Böhlke and Robins (19600, 1960b, 1962), Böhlke and Springer (1961), Böhlke and Thomas (1961), Courtenay (1961, 1967), Davis (1966), Eschmeyer (1965), Gilbert (1967), Hubbs (1963), Randall (1963b, 1965a, 1966), Randall and Böhlke (1965), Robins and Starck (1961), Robins and Tabb (1965), Springer (1962), and Starck and Courtenay (1962), treat material from Alligator Reef in systematic studies. These papers include 12 new Florida records and descriptions of ten new species from Alligator Reef.

Ciardelli (in press), Feddern (1963, 1965, in press), Gould (1965), McKenny (1959), Randall and Randall (1960), Randall (1962), Schroeder and Starck (1964), Starck (1960), Starck and Schroeder (1965), Starck (in press), Starck and Davis (1967), and Myrberg, Brahy, and Emery (1967) deal with biological aspects of fishes from Alligator Reef and include one new record of occurrence for Florida.

Numerous black and white and color photographs of reef fishes and reef habitats at Alligator Reef may also be found in Starck and Brundza (1966).


 From 1958 to 1960 collections at Alligator Reef were made by the author in co-operation with a study of the inshore fish fauna of the Florida Keys headed by C. Richard Robins under National Science Foundation grants-in-aid 3881 and 9695. Field work in the summer of 1964 was connected with investigations of the feeding habits and related morphology of selected reef fishes supported by NSF-GB-1456 of which Dr. Robins was principal investigator.

Since June 1965 work at Alligator Reef has been supported by NSF-GB-3628 of which the author is principal investigator.

The National Geographic Society has also contributed considerable support to various facets of the work since 1962.

Over the years, many individuals have participated in field work at Alligator Reef. Henry A. Feddern, Richard H. Chesher, Alan R. Emery and William P. Davis have been especially helpful and are, themselves, carrying out studies on the biology of various reef organisms. Robert E. Schroeder has also assisted in field operations at various times.

John E. Randall was involved in early collecting efforts and has been most co-operative in subsequent years with his ideas, observations, and data on reef fish biology.

C. Richard Robins has made available all possible facilities of the ichthyological museum of the Institute of Marine Science and has given invaluable aid in taxonomic problems concerning reef fishes. He has also critically reviewed this manuscript.

James E. Böhlke furnished a complete list of the known fish fauna of the Bahama Islands and solved several perplexing taxonomic problems.

Jo D. Starck, the author's wife, assisted in all phases of the work from field operations and processing of collections and data to completion of the manuscript.


 Alligator Reef now has what is probably the most thoroughly known fish fauna of any single coral reef. The 517 species included In the present list also considerably exceeds the 440 odd fishes recorded by Longley and Hildebrand (1941) from the Tortugas; previously the richest known shore fish fauna of any single locality in the New World. This fact is indicative only of the richness of coral reef faunas in general rather than that of Alligator Reef in particular. With thorough collecting many other reefs in the West Indian Region will undoubtedly be found to have equal or even greater fish faunas.

Of the 517 species recorded some 389 are actually members of the reef community and are normally found in the area from the shore to a depth of 45 meters. The remaining species are either offshore pelagic forms, demersal species from deeper water, or stragglers from adjacent inshore areas.

In the checklist reef species have been divided into two groups to give some idea of the composition of the reef community. Primary reef species (indicated in the list by an asterisk) are those characteristically associated with coral reefs (253 species here). Secondary reef species are forms (indicated by a +) which, though normal residents of Alligator Reef and other reefs, are equally or even more characteristic of areas not associated with reefs (136 species here). The latter includes a number of occupants of sandy bottom and grass habitats as well as wide ranging species such as sharks.

In recent years a considerable number of publications have expanded our knowledge of West Indian reef fishes. Systematic notes, descriptions of new species, and generic and familial revisions have clarified many problems. Thirty-six of the reef species in the present list have been described in the past 11 years (since 1955) and all but one of the eight known new species included here are now in the process of being described by various workers. To assist the non-systematist amid this welter of new names and changes in old ones common names follow the scientific ones. When common names were unavailable they were coined; otherwise the common names of Bailey et al. (1960) were generally followed. In some cases the names recommended by Bailey et al. were apparently taken from those listed by earlier scientific workers and are not coincident with names standardly used by aquarists, skindivers, and fishermen. In these cases the commonly used name is followed rather than the recommended one. In a few additional cases where descriptive names suggested by Bailey et al. were misleading for the live fish a new name is given. Wherever such changes have been made the reasons are given.

In addition to Bailey et al. who listed fishes of the United States and Canada Briggs (1958) also dealt comprehensively with Florida fishes in his list of Florida fishes. Both papers, though important and useful works, contributed to zoogeographic confusion by including species which were not previously recorded from Florida. Unfortunately these species were not differentiated from ones based on published record.

In a number of cases in Briggs' work and in a lesser number in Bailey et al., species were anticipated on the basis of a pattern of known distribution which would probably include Florida though no specimens had been collected there, Some of these speculations have been vindicated by subsequent collections. Others have not.

Both publications also included species which had been collected but not recorded though no indication of this status is given. In the case of Bailey et al.  a number of these were based on material collected at Alligator Reef by the author and curated by Dr. C. Richard Robins, a co-author of that work.  Therefore, 16 of the species from the present list are included by Bailey et al. but are not previously recorded.

Whenever possible species binomens used are those recommended by recent studies. For convenience the familial order used by Bailey et al. has been followed and species within a family listed alphabetically. Non-reef species are designated as offshore for those pelagic species which occur from the. reef-top seaward and the demersal species which live in depths greater than 45 meters. Inshore species are those which normally live in Florida Bay and stray into the reef area (for a more detailed list of Florida Bay fishes see Tabb and Manning, 1961). .

To indicate the abundance of each species five qualitative categories are used. Rare species are those of which three of fewer specimens have been seen or collected among a number of collections in their habitat. Occasional ones are species collected or observed at irregular intervals. Species listed as frequent have been seen or collected on numerous occasions or are taken in a large percentage of collections from their habitat. Common species are ones that may be found during virtually every dive or collection in the proper area. Abundant indicates a common species present in large numbers.

Though the South Florida area is often thought of as subtropical it is important to emphasize that the marine fauna. and flora of the Florida Keys is wholly tropical in nature as pointed out by Stephenson and Stephenson (1958: 393). While the Florida Keys do lie just outside of the Tropic of Cancer the Florida Current displaces tropical marine conditions northward. On rare occasions exceptionally cold weather may drop water temperatures near shore to the lower lethal limit for some organisms but the reef area from the lagoon seaward is unaffected by these short cold spells. Faunal differences between the Florida reefs and Bahamian ones, for example, are evidently connected with other factors than temperature. The unusually heavily sedimented nature (for a coral reef) of much of the sea floor in the Keys is perhaps the single most important factor.

Although ecological conditions at Alligator Reef restrict certain species many others are favored. Especially abundant and noticeable are the grunts (Pomadasyidae), snappers (Lutjanidae), and sea basses (Serranidae), and the general underwater appearance of the reef fish population density is not equaled on most other West Indian reefs.

The fishes of Alligator Reef are typical of West Indian reefs in general and constitute a fauna that can hardly be considered impoverished in reef forms. With adequate collecting many of the faunal differences between various locations in this faunal region are disappearing and those that remain are beginning to fit a pattern.

Briggs (1958: 235) listed as Florida endemics 26 nominal species that are included in or are synonyms of reef species in the present list. At the present time only one of these (Hypoplectrus gemma)is still known only from Florida. To this may be added two subsequently described species (Lythrypnus phorellus and Ophidion selenops), one undescribed species (Chromis sp.), a species previously recorded erroneously from the West Indies (Elacatinus oceanops), and two species which range outside Florida along the continental coast (Liopropoma eukrines and Equetus umbrosus), for a total of seven out of 389 reef inhabitants that are not recorded elsewhere in the West Indies. With further collecting it is probably that several of these seven will also be found outside Florida. Except for Ophidion all other Western Atlantic species of the genera involved are West Indian reef forms and even Ophidion has several West Indian reef representatives.

Of the seven species found, so far, only in U. S. waters, two are small gobies, two are small serranids, one a dwarf cusk eel, end one a pormacentrid. The tendency for zoogeographic differentiation within the region to be restricted to small species with limited ability to travel and little or no pelagic larval period is apparent. Rosenblatt (1963:176) has pointed out these and additional factors which have contributed to rapid evolution in such fishes. It is also evident that most species of even these groups are not restricted to Florida and the barrier has been effective for only a relatively limited number of forms.

Differences in faunal composition between reefs in the West Indies can therefore be regarded primarily as ecological or quantitative rather than zoogeographic or qualitative. With a much larger species complement available to a reef than actually lives there the faunal composition of a given reef is a function of what can live there rather than what can get there. Though two reefs may reveal similar species lists with extensive collecting, the populations of each species are often quite dissimilar depending upon differences in geography, hydrography, and biology of the reefs.

Comparison of the fish fauna of Alligator Reef with other areas on an equitable basis is difficult because of lack of adequate collections elsewhere. Longley and Hildebrand (1941) report a total of 442 nominal species from the Tortugas of which about 300 may be considered reef inhabitants. The species taken at Alligator but not at Tortugas largely reflect differences in techniques used. The groups showing the greatest difference are the burrowing eels and cusk eels, the small cryptic gobies, and the deeper water labrids.

In view of the nature of the differences in recorded species and collecting techniques no significant faunal differentiation between the Tortugas and Alligator Reef can be postulated and it is probable none exists.

Over recent years extensive collecting with rotenone-based ichthyocides and SCUBA gear has greatly expanded our knowledge of the fishes of the Bahama Islands. The greatest part of recent ichthyological work In the Bahamas has been carried out by James E. Böhlke and Charles C. G. Chaplin of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Dr. Böhlke kindly furnished the author with a list of fishes known from the Bahamas and it is on this basis that the following comparisons are made. In this case collecting techniques are comparable between the two areas and over 50 of the Bahamian collections were made by the author using identical techniques to the ones used at Alligator Reef. However, it must still be considered that we are comparing collections made in the many reef situations of a large group of islands with those made on one reef.

Dr. Böhlke's list of Bahamian fishes includes 496 species in total, of which about 450 may be found on coral reefs. Total fauna is, therefore, slightly less than that of Alligator Reef but the reef dwelling component is fifteen percent greater.

Only one family Involved is not common to both areas. The serranoid family Grammidae is not represented at Alligator Reef and is unrecorded from Florida. However, one species, Gramma loreto, is reportedly taken occasionally by aquarium fish collectors in the region from Fort Lauderdale to Palm Beach Florida. In that area the Florida current is closer to shore than at any other point along the Florida coast. This feature coupled with the absence of extensive adjacent estuarine or bay areas permits clear oceanic water to prevail over the outer reef areas there. As a result a number of other species of fishes and invertebrates characteristic of the West Indies but rare or absent elsewhere in Florida are found there. Among fishes these include, in addition to Gramma loreto, the pygmy angelfish (Centropyge argi) and the longsnout butterflyflsh (Prognathodes aculeatus). This situation further illustrates that local conditions and not zoogeographic barriers are the causitive agents behind much of the apparent faunal differentiation between separate reef areas in the West Indian region.

          On the generic level 35 genera of reef fishes from the Bahamas have not been found at Alligator Reef but 18 of these have been taken elsewhere in Florida. Sixteen genera of reef fishes taken at Alligator Reef are unknown in the Bahamas but all have been taken elsewhere in the West Indian region.

          Reef species occurring in the Bahamas but not collected at Alligator Reef total 126 but 46 of these have been taken elsewhere in Florida. Seventy-two reef species from Alligator Reef are unknown for the Bahamas; however, all but seven of these (see above) have been taken elsewhere in the West Indies. Four of these seven are normally found in depths greater than 15 meters at which depths relatively few rotenone collections, or none at all, have been made over most of the West Indian Region.

The 82 Bahamian reef species not known from Florida are scattered among 27 families but the greatest number of these (51%) occur in four families. These families, the Clinidae (including the Tripterygiidae and Chaenopsidae), Gobiidae, Apogonidae, and Gobiesocidae are all composed of small species with short or non-existent pelagic larval periods and which as adults do not range widely.

The nature of the fish fauna of Alligator Reef and of the Florida reefs in general can be summarized as follows:

During the last glacial period tropical marine species were restricted to a much narrower latitudinal area and the Florida shore fauna was predominantly temperate in nature (Walters and Robins, 1961:16). The present reef fish fauna consists of relatively recent immigrants that have crossed the Florida Current from the West Indies or drifted with it from the Yucatan peninsula. This barrier has apparently been effective only for forms with very limited swimming powers as adults and with reduced or absent planktonic larval periods. This category includes the speciose gobies and blennies. Certain other forms while able to cross the Straits have been unable to develop normal populations due to local conditions.

Two factors are readily apparent which might adversely affect some West Indian reef species in Florida. One is an unusually high degree of siltation for a coral reef area and the other is a surprisingly dense population of many species on the Florida reefs perhaps creating an unfavorable competitive situation for some other species.       

Among the species which occur at Alligator Reef but for which local condltlons are apparently unfavorable are:Myripristis jacobus, Plectrypops retrospinis, Cephalopholis fulva, Liopropoma mowbrayi, Liopropoma rubre, Mycteroperca tigris, Inermia vittata, Lutjanus mahogoni, Centropygae argi, Prognathodes aculeatus, Balistes vetula, and Cantherhines macrocerus.

In contrast to the faunal limitations imposed by the barrier of the Florida Current and by local conditions, other factors have operated to permit a surprisingly rich reef fish fauna in Florida. The Florida Current maintains favorable temperatures over the reefs and brings an abundant supply of planktonic food. Adjacent and extensive inshore regions of high productivity furnish excellent forage areas for adults of a number of species and nursery grounds for juveniles of many. Finally a wide range of reef and reef-associated habitats are found.

The net results of these factors are that the fish fauna consists of West Indian species with the exception of seven out of nearly 400 reef species and some of these seven will probably also be found in the West Indies with further collecting. Results of the favorable factors are such that not only are a large number of species found in a single area but populations of many are unusually dense.

Outside the Western Atlantic the best known reef fish fauna is that of Hawaii. In comparison, however, it must be remembered that in Hawaii we are considering the fauna of an archipelago 1,500 miles long and not that of a single reef. Gosline and Brock (1960) report from Hawaii a total of 448 inshore species from depths less than 100 fathoms. Of these just under 400 species can be considered reef dwellers. The very similar number of reef species between Alligator Reef and the entire Hawaiian chain including Johnston Island is indicative of the surprising richness of the Florida reef fauna.

Other than at Hawaii, which is impoverished in comparison, the rich Indo-Pacific fauna is very poorly studied. Two areas have received more recent and extensive treatment than the rest. Schultz et al. (1951, 1960, and 1966) report about 625 reef species from the Marshall and Marianas Islands. The limited nature of the collections on which their work was based indicate an actual fauna of at least 800 reef dwelling fishes. Smith and Smith (1963) report approximately 740 reef species from the Seychelles. From personal observation and collecting there I would feel safe in estimating a total reef fish fauna of over 900 species.

While these figures are totals for relatively large island groups it appears probable that the fauna of tropical Indo-Pacific reefs is approximately twice as speciose as that of West Indian reefs.

In comparing the general systematic composition of the Alligator Reef fauna or the West Indian fauna in general with that of the tropical Indo-Pacific area the most noticeable differences are the greater importance of the Clinidae and Pomadasyidae in the West Indian Region and the increased significance of the Blenniidae and Acanthuridae in the Indo-Pacific. A few specialized Indo-West Pacific families are not represented at all in the West Indian Region.

A significant portion of the Clinidae, the Chaenopsidae, has been recognized as a separate family (Stephens, 1963) and together with the Dactyloscopidae are the only families of West Indian reef fishes which are known only from the New World. The remaining families are all represented in the Indo-Pacific.

The Blenniidae of the Indo-Pacific fill, to some extent, niches occupied by the Clinidae of the West Indian Region.

The Pomadasyidae are represented in the Indo-Pacific by the closely related Gaterinidae which are also ecologically similar and the two groups probably do not rate familial separation.

The wide range of niches defined by the many species of Indo-Pacific Acanthurids are apparently exploited only by the four Western Atlantic species of Acanthurus.

Other characteristic and speciose reef fish families of the Indo-Pacific such as the Muraenidae, Ophicthidae, Holocentridae, Serranidae, Lutjanidae, Apogonidae, Carangidae, Mullidae, Chaetodontidae, Pomacentridae, Labridae, Scaridae, Gobiidae, Scorpaenidae, Blenniidae, Balistidae, Ostraciidae and Diodontidae are all well represented at Alligator Reef. With the exception of the Mullidae (two species) and the Ostraciidae (four species) all these families have five or more species at Alligator Reef.


 The fish fauna of Alligator Reef is fully tropical West Indian in nature and surprisingly rich. The known fauna from this reef and immediate environs now includes a greater number of species than has been previously recorded from any one location in the New World. The reef fish fauna probably consists of post-glacial immigrants and accordingly the most noticeable differentiation from the fauna from the West Indian islands includes the absence of certain smaller demersal species with limited swimming power as adults and little or no pelagic larval period.

In comparison with the tropical Indo-Pacific reef fish fauna that of Alligator Reef is similar in composition on the familial and generic level. The total number of species involved is very close to that of the Hawaiian reef fish fauna but only about one-half that of the Marshall and Marianas Islands or the Seychelles.


 The reef habitat, primary and secondary reef species, and categories of abundance have been defined above. Comments on scientific and common names used are also made above.

Where species binomens differ from those previously used reasons are given as they are when common names differ from those suggested by Bailey et al. (1960). While stability in common names is certainly desirable the author is of the opinion that for ichthyologists to insist upon a common name in the face of uniform popular usage of another equally appropriate name contributes nothing to nomenclatural stability. In other cases a suggested common name may be misleading and require change. One example is the previously recommended whlteline goby which in life has a bright yellow line. Persons who use common names will probably never see a faded preserved specimen with a white line. Unfortunately, therefore, it appears that recommended common names like scientific ones may sometimes have to be changed. Such name changes, if reasonable and conservative in nature, should in the long run contribute to stability rather than detract from it.

Species of which specimens from Alligator Reef are in the ichthyological museum of the Institute of Marine Science are identified by the letters UMML. The four species based on sight records only are so stated.

All new records of occurrence for Florida are identified as such and in a few cases where taxonomic status is uncertain this is also noted.


Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, MAKO, rare, offshore, one specimen examined but not


+Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre), NURSE SHARK, frequent, UMML.


 Rhincodon typus Smith, WHALE SHARK, rare, one specimen seen by the author near
          Duck Key about 17 miles west of Alligator Reef.


Carcharhinus falciformis (Valenciennes), SILKY SHARK, common, offshore.

+Carcharhlnus leucas (Valenciennes), BULL SHARK, frequent to common.

Carcharhlnus limbatus (Valenciennes), BLACKTIP SHARK, occasional, inshore.

Carcharhlnus obscurus (Lesueur), DUSKY SHARK, frequent, offshore.

+Galeocerdo cuvieri (Peron and Lesueur), TIGER SHARK, occasional to frequent.

+Negaprion brevirostris (Poey), LEMON SHARK, common to abundant inshore, occasional reef, UMML.

Prionace glauca (Linnaeus), BLUE SHARK, rare, one specimen caught around 1940 about 10 miles SW of Alligator Reef, identified by the late Albert Pflueger, Miami taxidermist.


+Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell), GREAT HAMMERHEAD, occasional to frequent.

+Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus), BONNETHEAD, occasional to frequent.

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus), SMOOTH HAMMERHEAD, occasional, offshore, UMML.


Pristis pectinatus Latham, SMALL TOOTH SAWFISH, occasional, inshore, UMML.


Rhinobatos lentiginosus (Garman), ATLANTIC GUITARFISH, rare, inshore.


+Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers), LESSER ELECTRIC RAY, frequent, UMML.


Raja garmani Whitley, ROSETTE SKATE, common, offshore, UMML.


+Dasyatis americana Hildebrand and Schroeder, SOUTHERN STINGRAY, frequent reef, common inshore.

+Urolophus jamaicensis (Cuvier), YELLOW STINGRAY, common, UMML.


+Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen), SPOTTED EAGLE RAY, frequent.


Manta birostris (Walbaum), ATLANTIC MANTA, occasional, offshore. 


Elops saurus Linnaeus, LADYFISH, frequent, inshore.

Megalops atlantlca Valenciennes, TARPON, common, inshore, UMML.


Albula vulpes (Linnaeus), BONEFISH, common, inshore.


+Harengula humeralis Cuvier, REDEAR SARDINE, common, UMML.

+Harengula pensacolae Goode crd Bean, SCALED SARDINE, common, UMML.

+Jenkinsia lamprotaenia (Gosse), DWARF HERRING, common, UMML.

*Jenkinsia majua Whitehead, LITTLE-EYE DWARF HERRING, common, UMML. First record for Florida. William N. Eschmeyer who is presently studying the species of Jenkinsia and who identified the material from Alligator Reef informed the author that several species may be involved in what is now known as Jenkinsia majua. The identification of Alligator Reef material under this name is, therefore, provisional.

+Jenkinsia stolifera Jordan and GIlbert, NARROWSTRIPE DWARF HERRING, frequent, UMML.

Opisthonema oglinum (Lesueur), THREAD HERRING, frequent, inshore.

+Sardinella anchovia (Valenciennes), SPANISH SARDINE, frequent, UMML. Hildebrand (1963) recognizes three species of Sardinella from the Western Atlantic; pinnula known only from Bermuda, anchovia ranging from Woods Hole to Florida and probably to Brazil, and brasiliensis which occurs from Florida to southern Brazil. Specimens from Alligator Reef fit descriptions of all three species with the smallest specimens generally corresponding best with brasiliensis, medium sized ones with anchovia and the largest specimens with pinnula. More than one type frequently occurs in the same school and it appears probable that only one biological species is involved. Only the oldest name, anchovia, is therefore recognized here. This name has previously been used extensively for the Florida species.


Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann and Marsh), DUSKY ANCHOVY, common, inshore, UMML.

Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes), BAY ANCHOVY, common, inshore, UMML.


+Saurida normani Longley, SHORT JAW LIZARDFISH, frequent to common, reef and offshore, UMML.

Synodus foetens (Linnaeus), INSHORE LIZARDFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Synodus intermedius (Spix), SAND DIVER, occasional reef, common offshore, UMML.

+Synodus poeyi Jordan, OFFSHORE LIZARDFISH, occasional reef, common offshore,
          UMML. *Synodus synodus (Linnaeus), RED LIZARDFISH, common, UMML.

+Trachinocephalus myops (Forster), SNAKEFISH, frequent, reef and offshore, UMML.


Glossanodon pygmaeus Cohen, PYGMY ARGENTINE, rare, offshore, UMML.


Galeichthys felis (Linnaeus), SEA CATFISH, occasional, inshore.


+Chilorhinus suensoni Lütken, STUBBY PENC!L EEL, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Kaupichthys atlanticus Böhlke, GRAY PENCIL EEL, occasional, UMML. First record for


+Ariosoma impressa (Poey), BANDTOOTH CONGER, rare, UMML.

*Conger triporiceps Kanazana, MANYTOOTH CONGER, rare, UMML.

*Nystactichthys halis (Böhlke), GARDEN EEL, frequent, UMML. First record for Florida.

+Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), MARGINT AIL CONGER, rare, UMML.


*Morlngua edwardsi (Jordan and Bollman), SPAGHETTI EEL, frequent, UMML. First record for Florida. Only one species of this family is presently recognized in the West Indian Region but some workers believe that further investigation may reveal more than one species is involved. The present species identification is therefore tentative.


+Ahlia egmontis (Jordan), KEY WORM EEL, occasional, UMML.

*Aprognathodon platyventris Böhlke, BANDED SNAKE EEL, occasional, UMML.

+Bascanichthys scuticaris (Goode and Bean), WHIP EEL, rare, UMML.

*Carolophia loxochila Böhlke, FLANGED SNAKE EEL, rare, UMML. First record for Florida .

+Echiopsis mordax (Poey), SNAPPER EEL, rare, UMML.

*Myrichthys acuminatus (Gronow), SHARPTAIL EEL, rare, UMML.

+Myrichthys oculatus (Kaup), GOLDSPOTTED EEL, occasional, UMML.Included by Bailey et
(1960), but not previously recorded from U.S. waters.

+Myrophis punctatus Lütken, SPECKLED WORM EEL, occasional, UMML.

+Sphagebranchus ophioneus (Evermann and Marsh), SURF EEL, frequent, UMML. Böhlke MS has synonymized S. conklini with S. ophioneus, leaving only one recognized species in the West Indian Region.

+Verma sp., AUGERNOSE WORM EEL, frequent, UMML.

+Verma sp., BLUNTNOSE WORM EEL, frequent, UMML. Due to the present state of systematic knowledge of this genus it is not possible to give positive identifications. At least one species is new according to Dr. James E. Böhlke who is studying this material for a future report.


*Echidna catenata (Bloch), CHAIN MORAY, rare, UMML.

*Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre), VIPER MORA Y, common, UMML.  Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U.S. waters.

*Enchelycore sp., DWARF VIPER MORAY, common, UMML. An undescribed species of moray closely related to E. nigricans but smaller. What appears to be the same species occurs in the Bahamas and the Antilles.

*Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, GREEN MORA Y, frequent to common, UMML.

*Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier), SPOTTED MORA Y, common, UMML.

+Gymnothorax nigromarginatus (Girard), BLACKEDGE MORAY, rare, UMML.

*Gymnothorax vicinus Castelnau), PURPLEMOUTH MORAY, common, UMML.

*Muraena miliaris (Kaup), GOLDENTAIL MORAY, frequent, UMML. Included by Bailey et al.
           (1960), but not previously recorded from U.S. waters..

*Uropterygius diopus Böhlke, FINLESS MORA Y, occasional, UMML.


Ablennes hians (Valenciennes), FLAT NEEDLEFISH, occasional, offshore, UMML.

+Platybelone argalus (Lesueur), KEELED NEEDLEFISH, common, UMML.

Strongylura marina (Walbaum) , ATLANTIC NEEDLEFISH, common, inshore.

Strongylura notata (Poey), REDFIN NEEDLEFISH, common, inshore, UMML.

Tylosurus acus (Lacépède), AGUJON, occasional, offshore, UMML.

+Tylosurus crocodilus (Peron and Lesueur), HOUNDFISH, common, UMML.


Chriodorus atherinoides Goode and Bean, HARDHEAD HALFBEAK, occasional, inshore,

Euleptoramphus velox Poey , FLYING HALFBEAK, occasional, offshore ,UMML.

Hemiramphus balao Lesueur, BALAO, frequent, offshore, UMML.

+Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Linnaeus), BALLYHOO, common, reef and offshore, UMML.

Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Ranzani), HALFBEAK, frequent, offshore (Juvenile), and inshore (Adult), UMML.


Cypselurus exsiliens (Linnaeus), BANDWING FLYINGFISH, offshore, UMML. Observations and collections of most species of flyingfishes are insufficient to permit any realistic attempt at classification as to "occasional", "frequent", etc.

Cypselurus furcatus (Mitchill), SPOTFIN FLYINGFISH, offshore, UMML.

Cypselurus heterurus (Rafinesque), ATLANTIC FLYINGFISH, common, offshore, UMML.

Exocoetus obtusirostris Günther, OCEANIC TWO-WING FLYINGFISH, offshore, UMML.

Hirundichthys affinis (Günther), FOURWING FLYINGFISH, offshore, UMML.

Hirundichthys rondeleti (Valenciennes), BLACKWING FLYINGFISH, offshore, UMML.

Parexocoetus brachypterus (Richardson), SAILFIN FLYINGFISH, common, offshore, UMML.

Prognichthys gibbifrons (Valenciennes), BLUNTNOSE FLYINGFISH, common, offshore,


Floridichthys carpio (Günther), GOLDSPOTTED KILLIFISH, common, inshore, UMML.

Fundulus confluentus Goode and Bean, MARSH KILLIFISH, common, inshore, UMML.

Fundulus similis (Baird and Girard), LONGNOSE KILLIFISH, common, inshore, UMML.


Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard), MOSQUITOFISH, common, inshore, UMML.

Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur), SAILFIN MOLLY, common, inshore, UMML.


*Aulostomus maculatus Valenciennes, TRUMPETFISH, frequent, UMML.


*Fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus, CORNETFISH, frequent, UMML.


Macrorhamphosus gracilis (Lowe), SLENDER SNIPEFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.


+Corythoichthys albirostris Heckel, WHITENOSE PIPEFISH, rare, UMML.

Corythoichthys brachycephalus (Poey), CRESTED PIPEFISH, common, inshore,

+Hippocampus erectus Perry, RIBBED SEAHORSE, frequent, UMML. This common name has been changed from that of Bailey et al. (1960) to avoid confusion with the following species.

+Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, SPOTTED SEAHORSE, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

+Hippocampus zosterae Jordan and Gilbert, DWARF SEAHORSE, frequent, inshore.

+Micrognathus crinigerus (Bean and Dresel), FRINGED PIPE FISH , frequent, UMML. +Micrognathus crinitus (Jenyns), INSULAR PIPEFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Micrognathus vittatus (Kaup), (both ensenadae and vittatus color patterns) BANDED PIPE FISH , occasional, UMML. Due to differences in ecology, and behavior, the author is of the opinion that the two forms are probably separate species.

+Syngnathus elucens Poey, SHORTFIN PIPEFISH, rare, UMML.

+Syngnathus louisianae Günther, CHAIN PIPEFISH, rare, UMML.

Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus, SARGASSUM PIPEFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.

+Syngnathus springeri Herald, BULL PIPEFISH, rare, UMML.


*Adioryx bullisi (Woods), DEEPWATER SQUIRRELFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Adioryx coruscus (Poey), REEF SQUIRRELFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Adioryx vexillarius (poey), DUSKY SQUIRRELFISH, common, UMML.

*Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbeck), SQUIRREL FISH , common, UMML.

*Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum), LONGSPINE SQUIRREL FISH , frequent, UMML.

*Myripristis jacobus Cuvier, SOLDIERFISH, occasional to frequent, UMML.

*Plectrypops retrospinis (Guichenot), CARDINAL SOLDIERFISH, one sight record only. Bailey et al. (1960) include it, but there is no previous record from U.S. waters published or unpublished.


Antigonia capros Lowe, DEEPBODY BOARFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.


+Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch), SNOOK, common, UMML.


*Alphestes afer (Bloch), MUTTON HAMLET, rare, UMML.

Anthias sp. (unidentlfied), rare, offshore, UMML.

*Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus), CONEY, occasional, UMML.

*Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes), MARBLED GROUPER, rare, UMML.

+Diplectrum bivittatum (Valenciennes), DWARF SAND PERCH, common, UMML.

+Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus), SAND PERCH, frequent, UMML.

*Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck), ROCK HIND, common, UMML.

Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode and Bean, SPECKLED HIND, common, offshore, UMML.

Epinephelus flavolimbatus Poey, YELLOWEDGE GROUPER, common, offshore.

*Eplnephelus guttatus (Linnaeus), RED HIND, common, UMML.

+Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein), JEWFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes), RED GROUPER, common, UMML.

Epinephelus mystacinus (Poey), MISTY GROUPER, rare, offshore, UMML.

Epinephelus nigritus (Holbrook), WARSAW GROUPER, common, offshore, UMML.

Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes), SNOWY GROUPER, common, offshore, UMML.

*Epinephelus striatus (Bloch), NASSAU GROUPER, common, UMML.

*Hypoplectrus gemma Goode and Bean, BLUE HAMLET, common, UMML, (Figure 1).

*Hypoplectrus guttavarius (Poey), FOUREYE HAMLET, occasional, UMML, (Figure 2) Not previously recorded from Florida.

*Hypoplectrus nigricans (Poey), BLACK HAMLET, occasional, UMML, (Figure 3). Not previously recorded from Florida.

*Hypolectrus puella (Cuvier), BANDED HAMLET, occasional, UMML, (Figure 4)

*Hypolectrus unicolor (Walbaum), BUTTER HAMLET, common, UMML, (Figure 5) In recent years most workers have relegated the many nominal species of Hypoplectrus to the synonomy of H. unicolor as a single highly variable species. Randall, Böhlke, and the author believe, on the basis of ecology, zoogeography, and some morphometric and meristic evidence that a number of valid species are involved. The five distinct forms found at Alligator Reef have therefore been recognized as species under the earliest name clearly based on each form. Only H. gemma is, on the basis of present evidence, restricted to Florida where it is quite common.

*Liopropoma eukrines (Starck and Courtenay), WRASSE BASS, frequent, UMML. Placement in the genus Liopropoma is based on the recent capture of a specimen of L. aberrans which proved to be inseparable generically from Chorististium. This situation will be reported upon in detail by C. Richard Robins who brought this to the author's attention. For further explanation of generic relationships in this group of serranids see Starck and Courtenay (1962: 164-165).

*Liopropoma mowbrayi Woods and Kanazawa, CAVE BASS, one specimen seen but not collected. Not previously recorded from Florida.

*Liopropoma rubre Poey, PEPPERMINT BASS, occasional, UMML.

*Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey), BLACK GROUPER, common, UMML.

*Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey), SALMON GROUPER, common, UMML.

+Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode and Bean), GAG, common, UMML.

*Mycteroperca phenax Jordan and Swain, SCAMP, common, UMML.

*Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes), TIGER GROUPER, rare, sight record only.

*Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus), YELLOWFIN GROUPER, occasional, UMML.

*Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes), CREOLE FISH, occasional, UMML.

*Petrometopon cruentatum (Lacépède), GRAYSBY, common, UMML.

*Schultzetta beta (Hildebrand), SCHOOL BASS, frequent, UMML.

+Serraniculus pumilio Ginsburg, PYGMY SEA BASS, rare, UMML.

*Serranus annularis Günther), ORANGEBACK BASS, common, UMML.

Serranus atrobranchus (Cuvier), BLACKEAR BASS, rare, offshore, UMML.

*Serranus baldwini (Evermann and Marsh), LANTERN BASS, common, UMML.

+Serranus chionaraia Robins and Starck, SNOW BASS, occasional, UMML.

+Serranus notospilus Longley, SADDLE BASS, occasional, UMML.

+Serranus phoebe Poey, TATTLER, common, UMML.

*Serranus tabacarius (Cuvier), TOBACCO FISH, common, UMML.

*Serranus tigrinus (Bloch), HARLEQUIN BASS, common, UMML.

+Serranus tortugarum Longley, CHALK BASS, common, UMML.


Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch), TRIPLETAIL, occasional both offshore and inshore, UMML.


*Pseudogrammus gregoryi (Breder), REEF BASS, occasional, UMML. P. bermudensis (Kanazawa) and P. brederi (Hildebrand) are considered here to be junior synonyms.

*Ryptlcus bistrlspinus (Mitchill), FRECKLED SOAPFISH, occasional, UMML. The name used here is that recommended by Walter R. Courtenay in his manuscript review of the genus. This species was previously known as Rypticus arenatus.

*Rypticus saponaceus (Bloch and Schneider), SOAPFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Rypticus subbifrenatus Gill, SPOTTED SOAPFISH, common, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U.S. waters.


*Amblycirrhitus pinos (Mowbray), CARIBBEAN HAWKFISH, frequent, UMML.


Apsilus dentatus Guichenot, BLACK SNAPPER, rare, offshore, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but apparently not previously recorded from U.S. waters.

*Lutjanus analis (Cuvier), MUTTON SNAPPER, common, UMML.

*Lutjanus apodus (Walbaum), SCHOOLMASTER, abundant, UMML.      .

Lutjanus campechanus (Poey). RED SNAPPER, occasional, offshore, UMML.

+Lutjanus buccanella (Cuvier), BLACKFIN SNAPPER, frequent, juveniles only, UMML.

*Lutjanus cyanopterus (Poey), CUBERA SNAPPER, occasional, UMML.

+Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), GRAY OR MANGROVE SNAPPER, abundant, UMML.

*Lutjanus jocu (Bloch and Schneider), DOG SNAPPER, frequent, UMML.

*Lutjanus mahogoni (Cuvier), MAHOGANY SNAPPER, occasional, UMML.

+Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus), LANE SNAPPER, frequent, UMML.

+Lutjanus vivanus Cuvier), SILK SNAPPER, occasional, juveniles only, UMML.

*Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch), YELLOWTAIL, abundant, UMML.


*Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, BIGEYE, rare, UMML.

*Priacanthus cruentatus (Lacépède), GLASSEYE SNAPPER, frequent, UMML.

+Pristigenys alta (Gill), SHORT BIGEYE, occasional, UMML.


*Apogon aurolineatus (Mowbray), BRIDLE CARDINALFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Apogon binotatus (Poey), BARRED CARDINALFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Apogon conklini (Silvester), FRECKLED CARDINALFISH, common, UMML.

*Apogon lachneri Böhlke, WHITESTAR CARDINAL FISH , frequent, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U.S. waters.

*Aogon maculatus (Poey), FLAMEFISH, abundant, UMML.

*Apogon pigmentarius (Poey), DUSKY CARDINALFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Apogon sp., SADDLETAIL CARDINALFISH, rare, UMML. A new species to be described by Böhlke and Randall under the species name pillionatus.

*Apogon planifrons Longley and Hildebrand, PALE CARDINALFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Apogon pseudomaculatus Longley, TWOSPOT CARDINALFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Apogon guadrisquamatus Longley, SAWCHEEK CARDINALFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Apogon townsendi (Breder), BELTED CARDINALFISH, occasional, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but apparently not previously recorded from U. S. waters.

*Apogon sp., SPONGE CARDINALFISH, rare, UMML. A new species to be described by Böhlke and Randall under the species name xenus.

*Astrapogon alutus (Jordan and Gilbert), BRONZE CARDINALFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Astrapogon punticulatus (Poey), BLACKFIN CARDINALFISH, frequent. UMML.

*Astrapogon stellatus (Cope), CONCHFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Cheliodipterus affinis Poey, BIGTOOTH CARDINALFISH, occasional, UMML. First record for Florida.

Synagrops bella (Goode and Bean), DEEPSEA CARDINALFISH, common, offshore, UMML.


Caulolatilus cyanops Poey, BLACKLINE TILEFISH, common, offshore, UMML.

Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps Goode and Bean, TILEFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.

*Malacanthus plumieri (Bloch), SAND TILEFISH, common, UMML.


Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus), BLUEFISH, occasional in winter.


Rachycentron canadum (Llnnaeus), COBIA, occasional, reef and offshore.


+Alectis crinitus (Mltchill), AFRICAN POMPANO, frequent, UMML.

*Caranx bartholomaei Cuvier, YELLOW JACK, common, UMML.

+Caranx fusus Geoffrey, BLUE RUNNER, common, UMML.

+Caranx hippos (Linnaeus), CREVALLE JACK, frequent, common inshore, UMML.

+Caranx latus Agassiz, HORSE-EYE JACK, frequent, UMML.

*Caranx ruber (Bloch), BAR JACK, common, UMML.

Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus), BUMPER, occasional, sight record only.

+Decapterus punctatus (Agassiz), ROUND SCAD, frequent, UMML.

*Elagatis bipinnulatus (Quoy and Gaimard), RAINBOW RUNNER, frequent, UMML.

Oligoplites saurus (Bloch and Schneider), LEATHERJACKET, frequent, inshore.

+Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch), BIGEYE SCAD, occasional, UMML.

Selene vomer Linnaeus), LOOKDOWN, common, inshore, UMML.

+Seriola dumerili (Risso), AMBERJACK, common, UMML.

Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes, ALMACO JACK, frequent, offshore, UMML.

Serlola zonata (Mltchill), BANDED RUDDERFISH, rare, offshore.

Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus), POMPANO, frequent, inshore, UMML.

+ Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus), PERMIT, frequent.

+Trachurus lathami Nichols, ROUGH SCAD, occasional, UMML.

Vomer setapinnis (Mitchill), MOONFISH, rare, UMML.


Coryphaena equisetis Linnaeus, POMPANO DOLPHIN, occasional to frequent, offshore, UMML.

Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, DOLPHIN, common, offshore, UMML.


+Eucinostomus argenteus Baird and Girard, SLENDER MOJARRA, common, UMML.

+Eucinostomus gula (Quoy and Gaimard), SILVER JENNY, common, UMML.

+Gerres cinereus (Walbaum), YELLOWFIN MOJARRA, frequent, reef, common inshore,


*Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch), BLACK MARGATE, common, UMML.

*Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus), PORKFISH, common, UMML.

*Haemulon album Cuvier, MARGATE, common, UMML.

*Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier, TOMTATE, abundant, UMML.

*Haemulon carbonarium Poey, CAESAR GRUNT, common, UMML.

*Haemulon chrysargyreum Günther, SMALLMOUTH GRUNT, abundant, UMML.

*Haemulon flavolineatum Desmarest), FRENCH GRUNT, abundant, UMML.

*Haemulon macrostomum Günther, SPANISH GRUNT, common, UMML.

*Haemulon melanurum (Linnaeus), COTTONWICK, occasional to frequent, UMML.

*Haemulon parrai (Desmarest), SAILORS CHOICE, common, UMML.

*Haemulon plumieri (Lacépède), WHITE GRUNT, abundant, UMML.

*Haemulon sciurus (Shaw), BLUESTRIPED GRUNT, abundant, UMML.

*Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus), SMALLMOUTH TOMTATE, abundant, UMML.

Orthopristis chrysopterus (Linnaeus), PIGFISH, rare, inshore.


+Bairdiella batabana (Poey), BLUE CROAKER, occasional, UMML.

*Equetus acuminatus (Bloch and Schneider), HIGH-HAT, common, UMML. As used here acuminatus applies to the species formerly known as pulcher and the species formerly known as acuminatus is umbrosus. This change is based on the unpublished recommendation of George Miller. The common names used here and for E. punctatus differ from those suggested by Bailey et al. (1960) in accordance with popular usage.

*Equtus lanceolatus (Linnaeus), JACKKNIFE-FISH, occasional, UMML.

*Equetus punctatus (Bloch and Schneider), SPOTTED HIGH-HAT, occasional, UMML. Included by Briggs (1958) and Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U. S. waters.

+Eguetus umbrosus Jordan and Eigenmann, CUBBYU, occasional, UMML.

*Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier), REEF CROAKER, common, UMML. .

Sciaenops ocellata (Linnaeus), RED DRUM OR CHANNEL BASS, occasional, inshore.


*Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), YELLOW GOATFISH, common, UMML.

*Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch), SPOTTED GOATFISH, common, UMML.


Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum), SHEEPSHEAD, frequent, inshore, UMML.

+Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus), SEA BREAM, frequent, UMML.

+Calamus arctifrons Goode and Bean, GRASS PORGY, occasional, UMML.

+Calamus bajonado (Bloch and Schneider), JOLTHEAD PORGY, occasional, UMML.

*Calamus calamus (Valenciennes), SAUCEREYE PORGY, frequent, UMML.

+Calamus nodosus Randall and Caldwell, KNOBBED PORGY, frequent, UMML.

+Calamus proridens Jordan and Gilbert, LITTLEHEAD PORGY, common, UMML.

Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus), PINFISH, abundant, inshore, UMML.


*Emmelichthyops atlanticus Schultz, LITTLE BOGA, frequent, UMML.

*Inermia vittata Poey, BOGA, occasional, UMML. First record for FlorIda.


*Pempheris schomburgki Müller and Troschel, GLASSY SWEEPER, common, UMML.


*Kyphosis incisor (Cuvier), YELLOW CHUB, common, UMML.

*Kyphosis sectatrix (Linnaeus), BERMUDA CHUB, frequent, common Inshore, UMML.


+Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet), SPADEFISH, frequent to common, UMML.


*Centropyge argi Woods and Kanazawa, PYGMY ANGELFISH, occasional, UMML. Included by Briggs (1958) and Bailey et al. (1960) but not recorded previously from U.S. waters. Pygmy angelfish rather than cherubfish (Bailey et al.) is in wide use by aquarists.    

*Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus, FOUREYED BUTTERFLYFISH, common, UMML.

*Chaetodon ocellatus Bloch, COMMON BUTTERFLYFISH, common, UMML. Common butterflyfish rather than spotfin butterflyfish (Bailey et al., 1960) is widely used by aquarists and sklndivers. The spot is frequently absent in the day.

* Chaetodon sedentarius Poey, REEF BUTTERFLYFISH, common, UMML.

*Chaetodon striatus Linnaeus, BANDED BUTTERFLYFISH, common, UMML.

*Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus), QUEEN ANGELFISH, common, UMML.

*Holacanthus isabelita (Jordan and Rutter), BLUE ANGELFISH, common, UMML.

*Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch), ROCK BEAUTY, common, UMML.

*Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus), BLACK ANGELFISH, common, UMML. The species name arcuatus as used here applies to the species called aureus by most previous authors. Likewise paru as used here equals arcuatus of previous authors. This nomenclature and the use of isabelita for the blue angelfish has been recommended by Henry A. Feddern (personal communication) who is reviewing the Western Atlantic angelfishes. The common name black angelfish rather than gray angelfish (Bailey et al., 1960) is again a widely used name by aquarists, skindivers, and fishermen while gray angelfish is not.

*Pomacanthus paru (Bloch), FRENCH ANGELFISH, common, UMML.

*Prognathodes aculeatus (Poey), LONGSNOUT BUTTERFLYFISH, occasional, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U. S. waters. Subsequently recorded by Hubbs (1963).


*Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus), SERGEANT MAJOR, abundant. UMML.

+Abudefduf taurus (Müller and Troschel), NIGHT SERGEANT, rare, inshore, UMML.

*Chromis cyanea (Poey), BLUE CHROMIS, abundant, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously reported. (Figures 6 and 7)

*Chromis enchrysurus Jordan and Gilbert, YELLOWTAIL REEF-FISH, abundant, UMML. (Figure 8)

*Chromis insolatus (Cuvier), SUNSHINE FISH, abundant, UMML, (Figure 9). The common names of this species and of Chromls multilineata, Microspathodon chrysurus, and Pomacentrus planifrons below are in accordance with usage by aquarists and skindivers. Bailey et al. (1960) offer other names.

*Chromis multilineata (Guichenot), GRAY CHROMIS, abundant, UMML, (Figures 10 and 11)

*Chromis sp., PURPLE REEF-FISH, common, UMML. An undescribed species closely related to Chromis insolatus (Figures 12 and 13). This species will be described in a forthcoming paper by Alan R. Emery under the species name scotti.

*Pomacentrus fuscus (Cuvier), DUSKY DAMSELFISH, common, UMML. (Figures 14 and 15)

*Eupomacentrus leucostictus (Müller and Troschel). BEAUGREGORY, common,             UMML. (Figure 16)

*Eupomacentrus sp., HONEY GREGORY. frequent, UMML. An undescribed species close to E. leucostictus. (Figure 17) This species will be described in a forthcoming paper by Alan R. Emery under the species name mellis.

*Eupomacentrus partitus (Poey), BICOLOR DAMSELFISH, abundant, UMML, (Figures 18, 19, and 20).

*Eupomacentrus planifrons (Cuvier), YELLOW DAMSELFISH, common, UMML, (Figure 21).      

*Eupomacentrus variabilis (Castelnau), COCOA DAMSELFISH, abundant, UMML. (Figure 22)

*Microspathodon chrysurus (Cuvier), JEWELFISH, common, UMML, (Figures 23 and 24).


*Bodianus pulchellus (Poey), SPOTFIN HOGFISH, common, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U.S. waters. Subsequently recorded by Randall (1962).

*Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus), SPANISH HOGFISH, common, UMML.

*Clepticus parrai (Bloch and Schneider), CREOLE WRASSE, common, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U.S. waters.

Decodon puellaris (Poey), CUBAN HOGFISH, common, offshore, UMML.

*Doratonotus megalepis Günther, DWARF WRASSE, common, UMML.

*Halichoeres bathyphilus (Beebe and Tee-Van), GREENBAND WRASSE, rare, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded from U. S, waters; subsequently recorded by Randall and Böhlke (1965).

*Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch), SLIPPERY DICK, abundant, UMML.

*Halichoeres caudalis (Poey), PAINTED WRASSE, occasional, UMML.

*Halichoeres cyanocephalus (Bloch), YELLOWBACK WRASSE, frequent, UMML.

*Halichoeres garnoti (Valenciennes), YELLOWHEAD WRASSE, abundant ,UMML.

*Halichoeres maculipinna (Müller and Troschel), CLOWN WRASSE, abundant, UMML.

*Halichoeres pictus (Poey), STRIPED WRASSE, frequent, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner), BLACKEAR WRASSE, common, UMML.

*Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus), PUDDINGWIFE, common, UMML.

*Hemipteronotus martinicensis (Valenciennes), ROSY RAZORFISH, frequent, UMML. Randall (1965b: 499) has pointed out that the Xyrlchthys martinicensis of Longley and Hildebrand (1941) is Hemipteronotus splendens, thus H. martinicensis is previously unrecorded from Florida. Inclusion by Briggs (1958) and Bailey et al. (1960) is apparently based on Longley and Hildebrand(1941).

*Hemipteronotus novacula (Linnaeus), PEARLY RAZORFISH, common, UMML.

*Hemipteronotus splendens (Castelnau), GREEN RAZORFISH, common, UMML.

*Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum), HOGFISH, common, UMML.

*Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bloch), BLUEHEAD WRASSE, abundant, UMML.


*Cryptotomus roseus Cope, BLUELIP PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

+Nlcholsina usta (Valenciennes), EMERALD PARROTFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes, INDIGO PARROTFISH, common, UMML. The common names used here and for Sparisoma rubripinne differ from those used by Bailey et al. (1960) in order to conform to widespread usage.

*Scarus coeruleus (Bloch); BLUE PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Scarus croicenis Bloch, STRIPED PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Scarus guacamaia Cuvier, RAINBOW PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Scarus taeniopterus Desmarest, RIBBON PARROTFISH, frequent, UMML. Not included by Briggs (1958) or Bailey et al. (1960) as the name was in synonomy with Scarus croicensis at that time. Randall (1963a: 228) has pointed out the validity of this species. Breder (1948) correctly identified the male of Scarus taeniopterus and stated that it reaches Florida.

*Scarus vetula Bloch and Schneider, QUEEN PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Sparisoma atomarium (Poey), DEEPWATER PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes), WHITESPOT PARROTFISH, common, UMML. The common names suggested by Bailey et al. (1960) for this species and for S. chrysopterum and S. viride are not in wide usage and are misleading for the live fish; therefore, other names are suggested here.

*Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch and Schneider), TURQUOISE PARROTFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Spar!soma radians (Valenciennes), BUCKTOOTH PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes), MUD PARROTFISH, common, UMML.

*Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre), GREEN PARROTFISH, common, UMML.


*Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau, OCEAN SURGEON, common, UMML.

*Acanthurus chirurgus (Bloch), DOCTORFISH, common, UMML.

*Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch and Schneider, BLUE TANG, common, UMML.


Gempylus serpens Cuvier, SNAKE MACKEREL, rare, offshore, UMML.


Acanthocybium solanderi (Cuvler), WAHOO, occasional, offshore.

Auxis thazard (Lacépède), FRIGATE MACKEREL, occasional, offshore, UMML.

Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque), LITTLE TUNA, common, offshore, UMML.

Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus), SKIPJACK OR ARTIC BONITO, common, offshore, UMML.

+Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), KING MACKEREL, abundant in winter, UMML.

Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill), SPANISH MACKEREL, frequent to abundant in winter.

+Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch), CERO, common, UMML.

Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), YELLOWFIN TUNA, frequent, offshore, UMML.

Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson), BLACKFIN TUNA, common, offshore, UMML.

Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus), BLUEFIN TUNA, occasional, juveniles only, offshore, UMML.


Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw and Nodder), SAILFISH, common, offshore, UMML. This name follows Whitehead's (1964) paper pointing out platypterus as the earliest available name for a sailfish (from the Indian Ocean) and James E. Morrow's unpublished study of the genus Istiophorus placing all nominal forms in one worldwide species.

Makaira nigricans Lacépède, BLUE MARLIN, occasional, offshore, UMML.

Tetrapturus albidus Poey, WHITE MARLIN, occasional, offshore.

Tetrapturus pflugeri Robins and deSylva, LONGBILL SPEARFISH, rare, offshore.


Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, SWORDFISH, rare, offshore.


*Ioglossus calliurus Bean, BLUE SLEEPER, common, UMML.


+Barbulifer ceuthoecus (Jordan and Gilbert), BEARDED GOBY, frequent, UMML.

Bathygobius mystacium Ginsburg, TIDEPOOL GOBY, rare, Inshore, UMML. First record for Florida.

Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes), FRILLFIN GOBY, common, Inshore, UMML.

*Coryphopterus alloides Böhlke and Robins, SPLITFIN GOBY, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Coryphopterus dicrus Böhlke and Robins, DOUBLESPOT GOBY, common, UMML.

*Coryphopterus eidolon BöhJke and Robins, GHOST GOBY, common, UMML.

+Coryphopterus glaucofraenum Gill, BRIDLED GOBY, common, UMML.

*Coryphopterus hyalinus Böhlke and Robins, GLASS GOBY, occasional, UMML.

*Coryphopterus lipernes Böhlke and Robins, BLUENOSE GOBY, frequent, UMML.

*Coryphopterus personatus (Jordan and Thompson), MASKED GOBY, abundant, UMML.

+Coryphopterus punctipectorphorus Springer, SPOTTED GOBY, frequent, UMML.

*Coryphopterus thrlx Böhlke and Robins, BARTAIL GOBY, occasional, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Elacatinus oceanops Jordan, NEON GOBY, common, UMML.     .

*Garmannia grosvenori Robins, DWARF SAND GOBY, occasional, UMML.

+Garmannia macrodon Beebe and Tee-Van), TIGER GOBY, frequent, UMML.

*Gnatholepis thompsoni Jordan, GOLDSPOT GOBY, common, UMML.

Gobionellus boleosoma (Jordan and Gilbert), DARTER GOBY, occasional, inshore, UMML.         

*Gobionellus sp., DASH GOBY, frequent, UMML. An undescribed species. To be described by Gilbert and Randall under the species name saepepallens.

+Gobionellus stigmalophius Mead and Böhlke, SPOTGIN GOBY, frequent, UMML.

Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg, CODE GOBY , frequent, inshore.

*Gobiosoma sp., YELLOWLINE GOBY, rare, UMML. This species has formerly been identified as G. horsti which does not occur in Florida. It will be described by Böhlke and Robins under the species name xanthipora.

*Lythrypnus nesiotes Böhlke and Robins,. ISLAND GOBY, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Lythrypnus phorellus Böhlke and Robins, PRISONER GOBY, frequent, UMML.

*Lythrypnus spilus Böhlke and Robins, DARKSHOULDER GOBY, frequent, UMML.

*Microgobius carri Fowler, SEMINOLE GOBY, common, UMML.

*Nes longus (Nichols), ORANGESPOTTED GOBY, occasional, UMML. Placement of this species In the genus Nes is done on the unpublished recommendation of C. Richard Robins.

*Quisquilius hipoliti (Metzelaar), REEF GOBY, common, UMML.


*Microdesmus floridanus (Longley), PUGJAW WORMFISH, occasional, UMML.


Pontinus rathbuni Goode and Bean, HIGHFIN SCORPIONFISH, occasional, offshore, UMML.

Scorpaena agassizi Goode and Bean, LONGFIN SCORPIONFISH, frequent, offshore, UMML.

*Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann and Marsh, CORAL SCORPIONFISH, rare, UMML.

*Scorpaena bergi Evermann and Marsh, GOOSEHEAD SCORPIONFISH,            occasional, UMML.

+Scorpaena calcarata Goode and Bean, SMOOTHHEAD SCORPIONFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Scorpaena dispar Longley and Hildebrand, HUNCHBACK SCORPIONFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer, DWARF SCORPIONFISH, rare, UMML.

+Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier, PLUMED SCORPIONFISH, occasional, UMML. This name rather than "lionfish" of Bailey et al. (1960) is used to avoid confusion with the Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois).

*Scorpaena inermis Cuvier, MUSHROOM SCORPIONFISH, occasional ,UMML.

*Scorpaena plumieri Bloch, SPOTTED SCORPIONFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Scorpaenodes caribbaeus Meek and Hildebrand, REEF SCORPIONFISH, frequent, UMML. (Figure 25)

*Scorpaenodes tridecimspinosus (Metzelaar), DEEPREEF SCORPIONFISH, occasional, UMML. First record for Florida. (Figure 26)


Bellator brachychir (Regan), SHORTFIN SEAROBIN, common, offshore, UMML.

Bellator egretta (Goode and Bean), STREAMER SEAROBIN, offshore, UMML.

Bellator militaris (Goode and Bean), HORNED SEAROBIN, abundant, offshore, UMML.

Peristedion gracile Goode and Bean, SLENDER SEAROBIN, offshore. The record of this species was kindly furnished by George Miller.

Peristedion platycephalum (Goode and Bean), FLATHEAD SEAROBIN, offshore, UMML.

Prionotus alatus Goode and Bean, SPINY SEA ROBIN , offshore, UMML.


+Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus), FLYING GURNARD, occasional, UMML.


+Lonchopisthus lindneri Ginsburg , SWORDTAIL JAWFISH, rare, UMML.

*Opistognathus aurifrons (Jordan and Thompson), YELLOWHEAD JAWFISH, common, UMML.

*Opistognathus cuvieri Valenciennes, PHANTOM JAWFISH, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

+Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan and Gilbert, MOUSTACHE JAWFISH, frequent, UMML. Longtail jawfish of Bailey et al. (1960) does not appear appropriate for this fish.

+Opistognathus macrognathus Poey, LONGJAW JAWFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Opistognathus whitehursti Longley), DUSKY JAWFISH, common, UMML.


+Dactyloscopus tridigitatus Gill, SAND STARGAZER, occasional, UMML.

*Gillellus greyae Kanazawa, ARROW STARGAZER, frequent, UMML.

*Heteristius rubrocinctus (Longley), SADDLE STARGAZER, common, UMML.


Cailionymus agassizi Goode and Bean, LANCER DRAGONET, common, offshore, UMML.

*Callionymus bairdi Jordan, CORAL DRAGONET, frequent, UMML.

+Callionymus pauciradiatus Gill, SPOTTED DRAGONET, occasional, UMML.


*Acanthemblemaria aspera (Longley), ROUGHHEAD BLENNY, common, UMML.

+Chaenopsis ocellata Poey, BLUETHROAT PIKEBLENNY, rare, UMML.

*Chaenopsis limbaughi Robins and Randall, SAND PIKEBLENNY, occasional, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Emblemaria atlantica Jordan and Evermann, BANNER BLENNY, occasional, UMML.

*Emblemaria pandionis Evermann and Marsh, SAILFIN BLENNY, occasional, UMML.

*Emblemariopsis bottomei Stephens, MIDNIGHT BLENNY, occasional, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Emblemariopsis diaphana Longley, GLASS BLENNY, occasional, UMML.

*Enneanectes altivelis Rosenblatt, LOFTY BLENNY, common, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Enneanectes boehlkei Rosenblatt, BOHLKE'S BLENNY, frequent, UMML.

*Enneanectes pectoralis (Fowler), REDEYE BLENNY, frequent, UMML.

*Hemiemblemaria simulus Longley and Hildebrand, WRASSE BLENNY, frequent, UMML.

*Labrisomus bucciferus (Poey), FRECKLECHEEK BLENNY, rare, UMML.First record for Florida.

*Labrisomus gobio (Valenciennes), PALEHEAD BLENNY, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Labrisomus guppyi (Norman), MIMIC BLENNY, frequent, UMML.

*Labrisomus hatiensis Beebe and Tee-Van, HATIAN BLENNY, common, UMML. Not listed by Bailey et al. (1960) but included for Florida by Longley and Hildebrand (1941), Briggs (1958), and Springer (1958).

*Labrisomus kalisherae (Jordan), DOWNY BLENNY, frequent, UMML.

 *Labrisomus nigricinctus Howell Rivero, SPOTCHEEK BLENNY, occasional, UMML.

*Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quay and Galmard), HAIRY BLENNY, common, UMML.

*Malacoctenus aurolineatus Smith, ORANGELINE BLENNY, occasional, UMML.   Not listed by Bailey et al. (1960) but recorded from Florida by Springer (1958). Malacoctenus sp. of Briggs (1958) is possibly this species.

*Malacoctenus macropus (Poey), ROSY BLENNY, frequent, UMML.

*Malacoctenus triangulatus Springer, SADDLED BLENNY, common, UMML.

+Paraclinus fasciatus (Steindachner), BANDED BLENNY, abundant, UMML.

*Paraclinus grandicomis (Rosen), HORNED BLENNY, occasional, UMML.

*Paraclinus infrons Böhlke, LONGNOSE BLENNY, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

+Paraclinus marmoratus (Steindachner), MARBLED BLENNY, occasional, UMML.

*Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner), BLACKFIN BLENNY, abundant, UMML.

*Starksia ocellata (Steindachner), CHECKERED BLENNY, common, UMML.

*Stathmonotus hemphilli Bean, CLOWN BLENNY, occasional, UMML.


+Blennius cristatus Linnaeus , MOLLY MILLER, abundant inshore, occasional reef, UMML.

*Blennius marmoreus Poey, SEAWEED BLENNY, common, UMML.

+Entomacrodus textilus (Quoy and Gaimard), PEARL BLENNY, common, UMML.

*Hyppleurochilus bermudensis Beebe and Tee-Van, BARRED BLENNY, common, UMML.

*Ophioblennius atlanticus (Valenciennes), REDLIP BLENNY, common, UMML.


+Brotula barbata (Bloch and Schneider), BEARDED BROTULA, rare, UMML.

*Ogilbla cayorum Evermann and Kendall, KEY BROTULA, common, UMML. It is generally accepted among systematists that a number of species are now classified under this name. The identification is, therefore, tentative and it is probable that more than one species is found at Alligator Reef.

*Oligopus claudei (Torre), REEF BROTULA, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Petrotyx sanguineus (Meek and Hildebrand), RUDDY BROTULA, frequent, UMML. First record for Florida.

*Stygnobrotula latebricola Böhlke, BLACK BROTULA, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.


+Lepophidium jeannae Fowler, MOTTLED CUSK-EEL, rare, UMML.

+Ophidion holbrooki (Putnam), BANK CUSK-EEL, occasional, UMML.

+Qphidion selenops Robins and Böhlke, MOONEYE CUSK-EEL, occasional, UMML.

*Otophidion dormitator Böhlke and Robins, GHOST CUSK-EEL, occasional, UMML . First record for Florida.

*Parophidion schmidti (Woods and Kanazawa), GRASS CUSK-EEL, frequent, UMML. First record for Florida .


 *Carapus bermudensis (Jones), PEARLFISH, frequent, UMML.


Ariomma regulus (Poey), SPOTTED DRIFTFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.

Nomeus gronowi (Gmelin), MAN-O-WAR FISH, frequent, UMML.

Palinurichthys perciformis (Mitchill), BARRELFISH, rare, offshore.

Psenes cyanophrys Cuvier, FRECKLED DRIFTFISH, occasional, offshore, UMML.

Psenes maculatus Lütken, SILVER DRIFTFISH, occasional, offshore, UMML.


*Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum), GREAT BARRACUDA, common, UMML.

+Sphyraena borealis DeKay, NORTHERN BARRACUDA, frequent, UMML. This common name differs from that of Bailey et al. (1960) in accordance with general usage.


Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, STRIPED OR BLACK MULLET, common, inshore.

Mugil curema Valenciennes, WHITE MULLET, frequent, inshore.

Mugil gaimardiana Desmarest, REDEYE MULLET, occasional, inshore.

Mugil trichodon Poey, FANTAIL MULLET, abundant, inshore, UMML.


+Allanetta harringtonensis (Goode), REEF SILVERSIDE, common, UMML.

+Atherinomorus stipes (Müller and Troschel), HARDHEAD SILVERSIDE, common, UMML.


Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode and Bean), THREE-EYE FLOUNDER, offshore, UMML.

*Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz), EYED FLOUNDER, common, UMML.

Citharichthys arctifrons Goode, GULF STREAM FLOUNDER, abundant, offshore, UMML.

Citharichthys cornutus (Günther), HORNED WHIFF, abundant, offshore, UMML.

+Citharichthys macrops Dresel, SPOTTED WHIFF, occasional, UMML.

+Citharichthys sp., rare, UMML. An unidentified species close to C. cornutus, possbly undescrlbed.

+Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode and Bean), SPOTFIN FLOUNDER, occasional, UMML.

+Syacium gunteri Ginsburg, CHANNEL FLOUNDER, occasional, UMML.

+Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus), DUSKY FLOUNDER, common, UMML.


+Achlrus lineatus(Linnaeus), LINED SOLE, rare, UMML.

+Trinectes maculatus (Bloch and Schneider), HOGCHOKER, rare, UMML.


*Symphurus arawak Robins and Randall, CARIBBEAN TONGUE FISH, rare, UMML. First record for Florida.

+Symphurus diomedianus (Goode and Bean), SPOTTEDFIN TONGUEFISH, occasional, UMML.


+Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, SHARKSUCKER, common, UMML.

+Echeneis neucratoides Zuieuw, WHITEFIN SHARKSUCKER, rare, UMML.

Phtheirichths lineatus (Menzies), SLENDER SUCKERFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.

Remora brachyptera (Lowe), SPEARFISH REMORA, rare, offshore, UMML.

Remora osteochir (Cuvier), MARLINSUCKER, frequent, offshore, UMML.


+Acyrtos beryllinus (Hildebrand and Ginsburg), EMERALD CLINGFISH, occasional, UMML.

Gobiesox strumosus Cope, SKILLETFISH, occasional, UMML.


Parahollardia lineata (Longley), JAMBEAU, rare, offshore, UMML.


Alutera monoceros (Linnaeus), UNICORN FILEFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.

*Alutera schoefi (Walbaum), ORANGE FILEFISH, common, UMML.

*Alutera scripta (Osbeck), SCRAWLED FILEFISH, occasional, UMML.

+Balistes caprlscus Gmelin, GRAY TRIGGERFISH, common, UMML.

 *Balistes vetula Linnaeus, QUEEN TRIGGERFISH, occasional.

*Cantherines macrocerus (Hollard), HOOKTAIL FILEFISH, rare.

*Cantherines pullus (Ranzani), ORANGESPOTTED FILEFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchlll), OCEAN TALLY, common, UMML. This name differs from that of Bailey et al. (1960) in accordance with common usage.

+Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill), FRINGED FILEFISH, common, UMML.

+Monacanthus hispidus (Linnaeus), PLANEHEAD FILEFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Monacanthus setifer Bennett, PYGMY FILEFISH , occasional, UMML.

*Monacanthus tuckeri Bean, SLENDER FILEFISH, common, UMML.


+Acanthostracion guadricornis (Linnaeus), COWFISH, common, UMML.

*Lactophrys bicaudalis (Linnaeus), SPOTTED TRUNKFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Lactophrys trigonus (Linnaeus), TRUNKFISH, occasional, UMML.

*Lactophrys triqueter (Linnaeus), SMOOTH TRUNKFISH, common, UMML.


*Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch), SHARPNOSE PUFFER, common, UMML.

+Sphoeroides spengleri (Bloch), BANDTAIL PUFFER, frequent, UMML.


*Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier), BRIDLED BURRFISH, frequent, UMML. Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but not previously recorded.

*Chilomycterus atinga (Linnaeus), SPOTTED BURRFISH, frequent, UMML.

+Chilomycterus schoepfi (Walbaum), SPINY BOXFISH, frequent, UMML. This common name differs from that of Bailey et al. (1960) in accordance with common usage.

*Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus, BALLOONFISH, frequent, UMML.

*Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, PORCUPINEFISH, frequent, UMML.


Mola lanceolata Lienard, SHARPTAIL MOLA, rare, offshore.

Mola mola (Linnaeus), OCEAN SUNFISH, rare, offshore.


Opsanus beta (Goode and Bean), GULF TOADFISH, abundont, inshore.

Porichthys porosissimus (Valenciennes), MIDSHIPMAN, frequent, offshore, UMML.


Lophius americanus Valenciennes, GOOSEFISH, occasional, offshore, UMML.

Genus sp. an undescribed genus and species, rare, offshore, UMML.


+Antennarius ocellatus (Bloch and Schneider), OCELLATED FROGFISH, occasional, UMML.

+Antennarius pauciradiatus Schultz, DWARF FROGFISH, occasional, UMML. Not Included by Bailey et al. (1960) but described by Schultz (1957) from Florida.

*Antennarius scaber (Cuvier), SPLITLURE FROGFISH, rare, UMML.

Histrio histrio (Linnaeus), SARAGASSUMFISH, frequent, offshore.


+Halieutichthys aculeatus (Mitchill), PANCAKE BATFISH, abundant, offshore, occasional reef, UMML. The common name spiny batfish of Bailey et al. (1960) is inappropriate as this species is one of the least spiny of the family.

+Ogcocephalus cubifrons (Richardson), POLKA-DOT BATFISH, occasional, UMML.

Ogcocephalus nasutus (Valenciennes), SHORTNOSE BATFISH, rare, offshore, UMML.

+Ogcocephalus parvus Longley and Hildebrand, ROUGHBACK BATFISH, common off shore, occasional reef, UMML.

+Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus), LONGNOSE BATFISH, frequent offshore, rare reef, UMML.

Zalieutes mcgintyi (Fowler), TRICORN BATFISH, frequent offshore, UMML.



  1966. Family Synodontidae, Lizardfishes. In Yngve H. Olsen and James W. Atz, Editors. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Sears Found. Mar. Res., Mem. No.1, pt. 5: 30- 102, figs. 14-35.


 1960. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada (second edition), Amer. Fish. Soc., Spec. Publ., 2:1-102.


  1967a. The descriptions of three new eels from the Tropical West Atlantic. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 118(4): 91-108,3 figs.

  1967b. A new sexually dimorphic jawfish (Opistognathus; Opistognathidae) from the Bahamas. Notulae Naturae, 407: 12 pp., 4 figs.


 1960a. A revision of the gobioid fish genus Coryphopterus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 112(5):103-128, 3 figs. and 2 pls.

 1960b. Western Atlantic goblold fIshes of the genus Lythrypnus, with notes on

            Quisquilius hipoliti and Garmania pallens. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 112(4): 73-101, 2 figs. and 3 pls.        .

 1962. The taxonomic position of the West Atlantic goby, Eviota personata, with descriptions of two new related species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 114(5): 175-189, 5 figs.


 1961. A review of the Atlantic species of the clinid fish genus Starksia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 113(3): 29-60, 15 figs.


 1961. Notes on the West Atlantic jawfishes, Opistognathus aurifrons, O. lonchurus and Gnathopops bermudezi. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 11(4): 503-516, 3 figs.


  1927. Scientific results of the first oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1925. Fishes. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 1-(1):1-90, 36 figs.

  1948. Field book of marine fishes of the Atlantic coast from Labrador to Texas. G. P. Putnam & Sons, New York and London. 332 pp., 16 pls., many text illus.


  1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. Mus., 2(8):223-318, 3 figs.


  In press. Food and feeding of Microspathodon chrysurus (Pisces: Pomacentridae).   Bull. Mar. Sci.


  1961. Western Atlantic fishes of the genus Haemulon (Pomadasyidae): systematic status and juvenile pigmentation. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib. , 11 (1 ): 66-1 49, 17 figs .

  1967. Atlantic fishes of the genus Rypticus (Grammistidae) : systematics and osteology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 119(6): 241-293, 19 figs.


  1966. A review of the dragonets (Pisces: Caillonymidae) of the Western Atlantic. Bull. Mar. Sci., 16(4): 834-862, 10 figs.


  1965. Western Atlantic scorplonflshes of the genus Scorpaena, including four new species. Bull. Mar. Sci., 15(1): 84-164, 12 figs.


  1963. Color pattern changes during growth of Bodianus pulchellus and B. rufus (Pisces: Labridae). Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 13(2): 224-241, 3 figs.

  1965. The spawning, growth, and general behavior of the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum (Pisces: Labridae). Bull. Mar. Sci., 15(4): 896-941 , 33 figs.

  In press. Hybridization between the Western Atlantic angelflshes Holacanthus isabelita and H. ciliaris. Bull. Mar. Sci.


  1967. A revision of the hammerhead sharks (Family Sphyrnidae). U.S. Nat. Mus., Proc. 119(3539): 88 pp., 21 figs. and 10 pls.


  1960. Handbook of Hawaiian fishes. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, ix + 372 pp., 177 figs.


  1965. The biology and morphology of Acyrotops beryllinus, the emerald cling fish. Bull. Mar. Sci., 15(11: 165-188, 5 figs.


  1963. Genus Sardinella Cuvier and Valenciennes 1847, Spanish sardines. In Yngve H. Olsen, Editor, Fishes of the Western North AtlantiC. Sears Found. Mar. Res., Mem. No.1, pt. 3., 397-411, figs. 98-101.


  1963. Chaetodon aya and related deep-living butterflyflshes, their variation, distribution and synonymy. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib. , 13(1): 133-192, 14 figs .


  1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida with observations on color, habits, and local distribution. Pap. Tortugas Lab., 34: xiii + 331 pp., 34 pls.


  1959. A contribution to the life history of the squirrel fish Holocentrus vexillarius Poey. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 9(2): 174-221, 12 figs.


  1967. Field observations on reproduction of the damselflsh, Chromis multilineata (Pomacentrldae), with additional notes on general behavior. Copeia, 1967(4): 819-827,7 figs.


  1962. Fish service stations. Sea Frontiers, 8(1): 40-47, figs.

  1963a. Notes on the systematics of parrotfishes(Scaridae), with emphasis on sexual dichromatism. Copeia, 1963(2): 225-237,4 figs., 3 cold. pls.

  1963b. Review of the hawkfishes (family Cirrhitidae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 114(3472): 389-451, 16 pls.

  1965a. A redescription of Sparisoma atomarium (Poey), a valid West Indian parrotfish. Notulae Naturae, Philad., 378: 1-9, 3 figs.

  1966. The West Indian blenniid fishes of the genus Hypleurochilus, with the description of a new species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 79: 57-72, 1 fig.


  1965. Review of the Atlantic labrid fishes of the genus Halichoeres. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 117(7): 235-259, 11 figs.


  1960. Examples of mimicry and protective resemblance In tropical marine fishes. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 10(4): 444-480,15 figs.


  1961. Materials for a revision of Serranus and related fish genera. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 113(11): 259-314, 8 figs.


  1965. Biological and taxonomic notes on the blue croaker, Bairdiella batabana. Bull. Mar. Sci., 15(2): 495-511, 2 figs.


  1963. Some aspects of speciation in marine shore fishes. Systematic Assn. Publ. No.5: 171-180,2 figs.


  1964. Photographing the night creatures of Alligator Reef. Nat. Geog. Mag., 125(1): 128-154, many cold. figs.


  1957. The frogfishes of the family Antennariidae. Proc. U. S. Nat.  Mus., 107: 47-105, 8 figs. , 14 pls.


  1960. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Volume 2, families from Mullidae through Stromatoidae. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 202(2): ix + 438 pp., pls. 75-123, text figs. 91-132.


  1953. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Volume 1, families from Asymmetrontidae through Siganidae. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 202(1): xxxii + 685 pp., 74 pls., text figs. 1-90.


  1966. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Volume 3, families from Kraemeriidae through Antennariidae. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 202(3): vii + 176 pp., pls. 124-148, figs. 133-154.


  1963. The fishes of Seychelles. The Department of Ichthyology Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 215 pp., 98 pls.


  1958. Systematics and zoogeography of the cllnid fishes of the subtribe Labrisomini Hubbs. Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci. Univ. Tex., 5: 417-492, 4 figs., 7pls.

  1962. A review of the blenniid fishes of the genus Ophioblennius Gill. Copeia,          1962(2): 426-433, 4 figs.


  1960. Spear of swordfish, Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, imbedded in a silk shark, Eulamia floridana (Schroeder and Springer). Quart. Journ. Fla. Acad. Sci., 23(2): 165-166.

  1966. Marvels of a coral realm. Nat. Geog. Mag., 130(5): 710-738, many cold. figs. .

  In press. The biology of the gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), in the Florida


  1966. The art of underwater photography. American Photographic Book Publishing Co., New York, 160 pp., many figs.


  1962. Chorististium eukrines, a new serranid fish from Florida, with notes on related species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 75: 159-168,1 fig.


  1967. Night habits of fishes of Alligator Reef, Florida. Ichthyologlca,38(4): 313-356, 25


  1965. A coral reef at night. Sea Frontiers, 11(2): 66-79, figs.


  1963. A revised classification of the blennioid fishes of the American family Chaenopsidae. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 68: iv +165 pp., 11 figs., 15 pls.


  1950. Life between tide-marks in North America, 1. the Florida Keys. J. Ecol., 38(2): 354-402, pls. 9-15, 9 figs.


  1961. A checklist of the flora and fauna of northern Florida Bay and adjacent brackish waters of the Florida mainland collected during the period July, 1957 through September, 1960. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Carib., 11 (4): 552-649, 8 figs.


  1961. A new toadflsh (Batrachoididae) considered to be a glacial relict in the West Indies. Amer. Mus. Novitates, 2047: 24 pp., 3 figs.


  1964. Xiphias platypterus Shaw and Nodder, 1792 (Pisces) : application to validate this nomen oblitum for the Indian Ocean sailfish (Genus Istiophorus Z. N. (S) 1657, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 21(6): 444-446, 1 pl.

Fishes under Alligator Lighthouse